The date of the week
World War II
  • 3 of november de 1943
    Aktion Erntefest, 42,000 jews was executed in two days in Lublin district

    Aktion Erntefest was the indiscriminate murder of 42,000 Jews in the Lublin district (Poland ) in only two days , on 3 and 4 November 1943 . A total of 18,400 were killed on day 3 in the Majdane... concentration camp in the largest execution in a single day in the history of the system of Nazi concentration camps . In late October , members of the SS ordered Jews prisoners to open three large ditches in a zig-zag way in the north end of campus, next to the crematorium. The decision worried prisoners but the answer was that war front approached Lublin and its was necessary to open trenches to defend the concentration camp. On November 3, after mourning roll call, jews were taken at a quick march to this final destination. They were undressed In a barracks and entered completely naked into the ditch, where they were executed. Various loudspeakers began playing various lively melodies while executioners began to execute innocent victims. Today, trenchs ara preserved and a monolith commemorates these tragic event. Operation Erntefest also imply murder of between 6,000 and 10,000 jews in Trawniki subcamp, located in an old sugar factory. The bodies were burned and the camp was liquidated. A monument in the center of town honors them. There were also massacres of Jjews within in Budzyn , Krasnik , Pulawy and Lipowa subcamps.

    30 of september de 1938
    The shameful Munich Agreement condemns Czechoslovakia

    On September 30, 1938, the Führerbau hosted the signing of the Munich Agreement, which enabled the Nazis to take over the region Czechoslovak Sudeten German-speaking. The pact was signed by... French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in the hope of meeting the nazis demands and avoid war. Besides being a first-rate diplomatic defeat and a surrender to the two dictatorial regimes, the agreement meant de facto defeat of the Spanish Republic, that was fighting a civil war against Franco's troops and it expected a belligerent position of the two Western powers against the great allies of Franco, the Third Reich and Mussolini's Italy. A year after agreement, Hitler would invade Poland and two years later he would attack France and England.

    21 of september de 1942
    Last transport from Warsaw to Treblinka during Grossaktion

    The September 21, 1942 was organized the last transport in Warsaw Ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp. The convoy carrying 2,196 jews. The completion of the mass deportation of the ghetto... inhabitants to death (Grossaktion) coincided with the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. From July 22 to September 21 were sent to death 253,742 people according nazis reports, a figure rising to 300,000 according jewish sources. The first months of 1943 were sent thousands more ghetto inhabitants to concentration and extermination camps.

    8 of august de 1942
    Janusz Korczak accompanies his orphanage children deported to Treblinka

    On August 8, 1942, the educator, journalist, doctor and polish jewish writer Janusz Korczak, pen name of Henryk Goldszmit, forced by the Nazis left with the children of his orphanage of Warsaw g... etto towards the Umschlagplatz, place of departure of convoys railroad direction to Treblinka Nazi death camp. Korczak walked with 192 and 196 orphans over a dozen staff members. Korczak was offered shelter but repeatedly refused, saying he could not abandon his children. According to popular legend, when the group of orphans finally reached the Umschlagplatz, an SS officer recognized Korczak as the author of one of her favorite children's books and offered to help him escape. In another version, the officer was acting officially, as the Nazi authorities had in mind some kind of "special treatment" for Korczak. Whatever the offer, Korczak once again refused. He ascended with the children into trains bound for Trreblinka.

  • 16 of july de 1942
    Begins the great raid of the 27,000 jews who lived in Paris

    At four o'clock in the morning of July 16, 1942, began the raid (rafle in French) against 27,000 jews who lived in Paris and its suburbs. The manhunt codename was Vent printanie (Wind spring... in which took part 5,000 french policemen and no german soldiers. A total of 900 groups, each with three police officers volunteer members, were the executors of the arrests. The operation continued the next day, on July 17. The total number of captured jews was 13,152, as many potential victims were hidden in the wake of persistent rumors about the purpose of the operation. Among those captured, single or married without children were transferred directly to the concentration camp of Drancy. The remaining 8160 people, men, women and children, were taken to the parisian Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vel d'Hiv). In Vel d'Hiv there was nothing prepared, no food, water, toilets or bedding of any kind. For three to six days, thousands of people received only one or two servings of soup a day. Two Jewish doctors and one of the Red Cross helped them. The temperature was always above 37 degrees. The Jews eventually were moved temporarily to the concentration camps of Pithiviers and Beaune-la-Rolande. Later this year, 42,500 Jews in France were sent to Auschwitz II-Birkenau.

    22 of june de 1941
    Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa begins

    The June 22, 1941 begins the largest military offensive in history known until then, Operation Barbarossa. Some 2.5 million Soviet soldiers are overwhelmed by more than three million soldiers of... the Third Reich and allies, 600,000 vehicles, 3.600 tanks, and 2.700 aircraft. The attack, of enormous range, is divided into three major fronts. To the north, an army group addresses to Leningrad. In the center, a second army group goes to Moscow and south a third group of armies to Ukraine and the Caucasus. The massive attack ignores the non-aggression pact signed by Hitler and Stalin only two years earlier.

    14 of june de 1944
    General de Gaulle treads France four years after the Nazi invasion

    The June 14, 1944, General de Gaulle sailed from Portsmouth on board the destroyer Le Combattante with a handful of prominent figures of the Free French. He came ashore on Normandy beaches in ea... ly hours of the afternoon, between Couseulles and Severe-sur-Mer. It was the first time he stepped on the floor of metropolitan France, four years after the invasion of their country by the Third Reich. After a meeting with Montgomery in his headquarters at Creully; de Gaulle wanted to reconnect with french people. At 15.30 hours arrived in the intact town of Bayeux, where he installed the first administration of French Republic, and he decided talk to neighbors in the castle square in historical discourse. Then, he visited Isigny sur-Mer, a largely destroyed town, where he delivered one second emotional speech and, finally, the coastal village of Grandcamp-les-Bains. In all the sites he visited that day, de Gaulle was cheered by the population, which allowed him to show to his allies that the French people recognized his legitimacy as leader of Free France.

    6 of june de 1944
    D-Day, Normandy landings

    In May of 1944, about 3 million soldiers were piled in southern Britain, prepared for the big landing on the French coast. The vast majority were British and American troops but had also troops ... rom Australia, Canada, New Zealand , Free France and Poland, among other nationalities. At 00.20 hours a day June 6, 1944, six Horsa gliders with men of the Sixth British Airborne Division began the offensive. Its aim, successfully achieved, was the conquest of a bridge over the canal between Caen and Ouistreham. At 02.30 hours, Ranville, in the sector of Sword Beach, became the first French town liberated by the Allies. At 01.30 hours, in the area of the village of Sainte Mère Eglise, 800 transport aircraft moved 13,000 troops of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions Americans with the mission to conquer the town and nearby villages. The two transactions were designed to facilitate the passage of the troops who had landed at dawn in five different beach areas called Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha and Utah. In the hours before the landing, until 1.180 British bombers and 1,080 U.S. bombers dropped thousands of bombs between Cherbourg and La Havre. Finally, at 05.30 hours, the allied warships began attacking the Nazi defenses of the Atlantic Wall. An hour hour later, at 06.30 hours, American troops landed on the beaches of its sector, Utah and Omaha. The Normandy invasion had begun.

  • 4 of june de 1942
    Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack

    On the morning of Thursday, June 4, 1942, died Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942), governor of Bohemia and Moravia and head of the feared Central Office for Reich Security (RSHA), headed by the Gesta... o and the Criminal Police, among other agencies. Heydrich was mortally wounded on May 27 in an attack by two czechoslovak paratroopers Josef Gabcik and Jan Kubis, the author of the dropping of the bomb on the vehicle carrying Heydrich in Prague. The Nazi leader was taken to Bulovka Hospital, where he died. His body was taken to Prague Castle where a ceremony was held on June 7. His successor, Kurt Daluege, delivered a tribute to him. On June 9 was celebrated at the new Third Reich Chancellery in Berlin a state ceremony in his honor. His remains were buried in the Cemetery of Veterans.

    7 of may de 1945
    Nazi Germany signed the first surrender to the Allies at Reims

    The morning of May 7, 1945, seven days after the suicide of Adolf Hitler, General Jodl signed on behalf of Admiral Dönitz, successor named by the Führer, and of the high command of the... Wehrmacht , a document of surrender in General Eisenhower headquarters, located in Reims. General Susloparov signed on behalf of the Soviet high command. Stalin was furious because he wanted that the surrender was to take place in Berlin, led by the Red Army. But the Western Allies wanted to announce victory in Europe the day after all the media. Stalin considered premature this decision. Despite the surrender, several Wehrmacht armies were still fighting in Czechoslovakia or Courland (Estonia). Next day, at night between 8th and 9th, it would be signed the unconditional surrender of the German forces, accepted by the representatives of the four allies. It took place at the headquarters of Marshal Zhukov, located in Karlshorst Palace, on the outskirts of Berlin. On the German side, capitulation was signed by commanders in chief of the Wehrmacht and of the three branches of the armed forces, represented by Marshal Keitel. With this signature, World War II in Europe was finished.

    19 of april de 1943
    Starting the armed uprising of the Warsaw Ghetto

    On April 19, 1943, the eve of Easter, SS troops began the operation to liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw and to deport residents that could work in labor camps in the General Government. Whe... units of the SS and police entered the ghetto in the morning, the streets were deserted. Almost all ghetto residents had taken refuge in hideouts and bunkers built for themselves. The resumption of deportations was the signal for carrying out the armed uprising in the ghetto. The head of the Jewish Fighting Organization ((Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB), Mordecaj Anielewicz, ordered his fighters to start the attack. Armed with guns, grenades (many homemade) and few automatic weapons and rifles, the ZOB fighters surprised the Germans and their auxiliaries, forcing Nazis to retreat. Commander of the troops, the SS Jürgen Stroop, reported that it had lost 12 men, between killed and wounded during the first day of fighting. The third day of fighting , Stroop forces started to razing entire ghetto, building by building, to force the jews out of hiding. Resistance fighters made sporadic attacks from the bunkers but nazis systematically reduced the ghetto to rubble. On May 8, 1943 , the bunker where they were hiding ZOB commanders was discovered by German divisions. Most present fighters, led by Mordechai Anielewicz group leader (1919-1943) and Arie Wilner (1917 -1943), committed suicide. Though German forces broke within days the organized military resistance at the beginning of the revolt, individuals and small groups hid or fought against the Germans for nearly a month. To symbolize the German victory, Stroop ordered the destruction of the Great Synagogue Street Tlomacki on May 16, 1943. The whole ghetto was in ruins. Stroop reported that had captured 56,065 Jews and destroyed a total of 631 bunkers. Their units estimated that 7,000 Jews killed during the uprising. The German authorities deported approximately another 7,000 Jews from Warsaw to Treblinka extermination camp, where most were killed in the gas chambers to arrive. The germans deported almost all remaining Jews, about 42,000, to the concentration camp Lublin / Majdanek and to forced labor camps of Poniatowa, Trawniki, Budzyn, and Krasnik. Except for a few thousand forced laborers of Krasnik and Budzyn, the SS murdered almost all jews deported from Warsaw. The nazis had planned to liquidate the Warsaw ghetto in three days, but the fighters resisted for more than a month. Even after the end of the revolt on 16 May 1943, some jews hid in the guetto ruins and patrols continued to attack the Germans and their auxiliaries. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the and symbolic largest Jewish uprising in occupied Europe by Nazi Germany. Resistance in Warsaw inspired other uprisings in ghettos (eg, Bialystok and Minsk) and killing centers (Treblinka and Sobibor).

    18 of april de 1942
    Doolittle bombers attack Japan in broad daylight

    On April 18, 1942, the United States made ​​the first aerial attack on Japanese territory during World War II. The so-called Operation Doolittle was almost suicidal attack over Tokyo and nea... by cities perpetrated by a group of 16 bombers (B-25 modified) launched from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, located 700 miles from the Japanese coast. The attack, carried out a few months after the devastating Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, aimed to boost the morale of the United States and violate a moral blow to the Japanese Imperial Army revealing that its territory was not inviolable. After being discovered by the enemy at sea, Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle decided to pull the attack despite the high risk they assumed. They descended to the height WIG and prepared to conduct a bombing in broad daylight while the carriers who had accompanied them were quickly reversed on Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Maintaining radio silence, using morse code and for five long hours the squadron moved to Tokyo. Besides the capital, the aircrafts moved towards Kanagawa, Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka and Yokosuka. The attack caused 50 dead, 250 injured and 90 buildings were destroyed, a result that the enemy considered minimal. Instead, all of the squadron aircrafts were lost, 11 men were killed, some of them made ​​by japanese, and five more were imprisoned by the russians. Doolittle's fleet was intended to land on Chinese territory but few succeeded. Doolittle and his crew fell in a Chinese rice field guarded by the Japanese and were rescued with difficulty by chinese guerrillas. Lieutenant-Colonel was promoted to general.

  • 13 of march de 1943
    Krakow Ghetto Liquidation


    On 13 and 14 March 1943, Nazis decided to liquidated the Krakow ghetto. The action was supervised by SS-Sturmbannführer Willi Haase. Around 6,000 jews capable of work were... transferred to Plaszow concentration camp. About 1,000 people were murdered in the streets of the ghetto. On March 13, a transport of about 2,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau. After selection, 484 men and 24 women were enrolled in the concentration camp. The remaining group, about 1,492 people, were murdered in gas chamber number II.

    15 of february de 1942
    nconditional surrender of Singapore to Japan

    On the morning of February 15, 1942, the Japanese Army General Yamashita had broken the last line of defense and the Western Allied were running out of food, water and ammunition. The flak also ... an out of ammunition and could not, therefore, repel Japanese air attacks that had provoked many casualties in the city center. The looting and neglect of allied troops joined to the chaos of the city center. At 0930 hours, Percival held a conference in the bunker of Fort Canning (Battle Box) with his officers. Proposed two options, launch an immediate counterattack to regain the water tanks and food in Bukit Timah region and force the enemy artillery elevations outside of town, or capitulate. All present agreed that a backlash was not possible. Percival decided, therefore, an unconditional surrender. A three-person delegation was selected to go to the Japanese headquarters. They crossed enemy lines in a vehicle equipped with the British flag and a second flag of truce. The Japanese army insisted that was Percival himself that had to go to the old Ford Motor factory in Bukit Timah to negotiate a surrender, an image that went down in history as a symbol of capitulation. After a brief disagreement, when Percival insisted that the British should keep to 1,000 armed men in Singapore to preserve order, request that ultimately granted Yamashita, Percival signed the surrender at 17.15. The cessation of hostilities came into effect at 2030 hours. The loss of the colony of Malaysia's economic value, with its important naval base in Singapore, led more than 100,000 British soldiers, India and Australia into captivity and also destroyed the prestige of the British Empire in the Far East. Churchill defined the fall of Singapore as the "worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history '.

    13 of february de 1945
    Dresden is devastated by hundreds of Allied bombers

    On February 13, 1945, shortly before 22:00 pm, several hundred bombers - mostly of them British- came flying over the sky of Dresden, the capital of the state of Saxony. It only took them 15 min... tes to convert almost three quarters of the city center to a rubble area. That bombing was followed by another, a little later, when a second wave of attacks unleashed a hurricane of fire, a hell that caused more than 20,000 victims.
    Historians have debated to this day the military sense of the destruction of Dresden, also called the "Florence on the Elbe" for its baroque architecture. The destruction of the capital of Saxony was undoubtedly a blow to Nazi Germany. Just three months later, the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler declared his unconditional surrender.

    20 of january de 1942
    Celebration of the Wannsee conference to define the Final Solution, the extermination of the Jews of Europe

    Wannsee, outside Berlin, was the site where on January 20th, 1942 the high civil Nazi command, with Adolf Eichmann in the lead, launched "the extermination organized and systematic murder o... European Jews". The Wannsee Conference was convened as a "working breakfast" by the head of the Reich Security, Reinhard Heydrich, with assistance from the state secretaries of key ministries and the own Adolf Eichmann, architect of the plan. His only issue was planning the "final solution", a protocol drafted by Eichmann, head and coordinator of the deportations, altough the ultimate responsibility belonged to Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS. Eichmann, convicted and executed in Israel in 1962 was the architect of that machinery, while the other attendees -14- were essentially senior technocrats and state secretaries of the ministries involved in the genocide. The Holocaust was already operating at full capacity in the Baltics, Belarus and Ukraine, but the Third Reich sought to systematize to exterminate eleven million Jews worldwide

  • 12 of january de 1942
    Japan conquers Holland Tarakan Island in Borneo, and executes all its defenders

    The Empire of Japan attacked on January 11, 1942 the small island of Tarakan, northeast of Borneo, Dutch territory. The island available to 700 oil wells, one refinery and an airport, becoming o... e of the main objectives in the Japanese Pacific War. A day earlier, on January 10, Japan had declared war on the Kingdom of the Netherlands. That day, advocates warned the invader fleet and decided to destroy all the oil fields of the island. At noon on January 11, Japanese troops landed. After a brief but fierce defense, the Dutch garrison (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger) surrendered to the japanese the morning of January 12. All prisoners were executed in retaliation for the destruction of oil installations. Tarakan remained under Japanese control until May 1945 when it was liberated by Australian troops.

    22 of december de 1941
    43,000 Japanese landed on the Philippine island of Luzon

    The Japanese empire landed its first troops in the Philippines on December 10, 1941. It was the first of many landings elsewhere in the islands during that month. The high point of that attack t... ok place on December 22, 1941 with the landing of 43,000 troops on the island of Luzon.

    9 of november de 1938
    Goebbels unleashed the Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) against thousands of Jews

    The Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht in German) is the night of 9 to November 10, 1938 when broke a wave of violence against Jews in Germany and Austria. However, this term metaphorically ev... king the broken glass of the countless broken windows does not accurately reflect the degree of violence and destruction and the number of murders. This explosion of violence as a pretext was the murder of a secretary of the German embassy in Paris, Ernst vom Rath, by Herschel Grynzpan young German-born Polish Jew. Orchestrated by Goebbels, Nazi propaganda minister, the instructions to the various organs of the party were clear: looting, fire and destruction of Jewish institutions and private ownership of the community as if were a spontaneous movement of the population. In two days, more than 250 synagogues were burned, over 7,000 Jewish shops were vandalized and looted, dozens of Jews were murdered, and cemeteries, hospitals, schools and Jewish homes were looted while police and fire crews remained at margin. The morning after the pogroms, 30,000 German Jews were arrested for the "crime" of being Jewish and were sent to concentration camps, where hundreds of them died.

    7 of december de 1941
    The Japanese fleet attacks Pearl Harbor, the Pacific war begins

    The first wave of Japanese planes reached the skies of Pearl Harbor shortly before 07:55 pm on December 7, 1941, time when the attack began. The commander of this wave of aircrafts, Mitsuo Fuchi... a, sent a message with the code 'To, To, To' and 'Tora, Tora.Tora', announcing to japanese naval fleet that the attack had begun and had achieved a total surprise. At 08:10 hours, the USS Arizona exploded and sank in less than nine minutes with 1,177 mens of its crew, the greatest loss of life during the attack. The USS Oklahoma was hit by several torpedoes, turned bell trapping over 400 men. The California and West Virginia also sank while other warships suffered severe damage. The Japanese attack also struck other military installations such as airfields and airbases. Hundreds of planes were destroyed on the ground and hundreds of men died. At 08:40 hours, a second wave of planes made ​​a new attack, concentrating on the destruction of the port. Despite the great success of the operation, the Japanese forces not completely destroyed neither the strategic naval base facilities nor the U.S. Pacific Fleet, in part because the fleet aircraft carriers were not anchored in the bay that day. The attack on Pearl Harbor, known it as the 'Day of Infamy' was the beginning of the Pacific War and led to the declaration of war by the U.S. against Japan and its European allies. 2390 Americans died in the attack.

  • 28 of october de 1940
    Italy invades Greece after the Greek prime minister rejected Mussolini´s ultimatum

    On 28 October 1940, at 04.00 am, the Italian ambassador in Greece, Emanuele Grazzi, woke up to the Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas, to deliver him an ultimatum. He demanded the entry of the... Italian forces in the country and occupation of strategic points. Metaxas rejected the demand with a laconic word 'Oxi!' (No!), although other sources suggest that the real answer was 'Alors, c'est la guerre' (So is war). At 05: 30 hours, the Italian army attacked the Greek border from Albania, an Italian protectorate. The Greek-Italian war had begun. During World War II, on October 28 was commemorated each year by Greek communities around the world and in Greece and Cyprus. After the war it became a holiday in Greece and Cyprus.

    2 of september de 1945
    Japan signed the surrender on the USS Missouri

    On September 2, 1945, USS Missouri battleship hosted the official ceremony of Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. The foreign minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed it on behalf of the civil government ... hile General Umezu did it on behalf of the japanese army, in the presence of the Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific, Douglas MacArthur, and Admiral of the U.S. Navy, Chester Nimitz. At 09:30 am, the japanese emissaries left the battleship, World War II was officially over. U.S. President Harry Truman declared September 2 was the VJ Day (Victory over Japan) or (Victory in Japan).

    1 of september de 1939
    Westerplatte attacked, beginning World War II

    At 4:45 pm on September 1, 1939, the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein started shelling against established Polish garrison in Westerplatte Peninsula, seven kilometers from Gdansk. At 4:50 pm... the officer in charge of the garrison, Henry Sucharski establishes telephone communication with the command of the Navy in Gdynia to report the attack. The Second World War had begun.

    9 of august de 1945
    The Fat Man atomic bomb dropped over Nagasaki

    On the morning of August 9, 1945, the U.S. B-29 bomber Bockscar, piloted by Major Charles W. Sweeney, carried the nuclear bomb called Fat Man with the intent of throwing it on the japanese city ... f Kokura as primary target. When they reached the city, Kokura was covered by 70% by clouds which darkening the city. The bomb was released over Nagasaki, the secondary target, at 11.02 am. An estimated 74,000 people died. Three days later, the Emperor of Japan, Hirohito, informed the imperial family of his decision to surrender.

  • 18 of april de 1943
    Murder of Admiral Yamamoto

    Commander Admiral of Japan, Isoroku Yamamoto, was murdered when he was travelling to visit the Solomon Islands by plane. It was shot down by American fighters USA P-38 Lighting.

    4 of july de 1941
    Burning of the Riga Choral Synagogue

    On July 4th, 1941, the volunteers of the Arajs Commando, created by the Nazis, gathered 300 lithuanian jews, mostly women ... nd children, and focused them on the Great Choral Synagogue of Riga, located on Gogol Street. Then threw grenades through the windows and the whole building was devastated by fire. There were no survivors.

    27 of january de 1945
    Liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau by the Red Army

    In late 1944, at the approach of the Red Army offensive, the concentration camp authorities were put to work to erase the traces of their crimes. Documents were destroyed, some buildings were de... olished and others were burned or were blown up. Prisoners capable of marching were evacuated between 17 and 21 January 1945 into the Third Reich, at the time that Soviet soldiers were just 60 miles apart, liberating the city of Krakow. Around 7,000 prisoners who were abandoned by the Germans in the death camp were liberated by Red Army troops on January 27, 1945. Between 300 and 400 were children.

Spanish Civil War
  • 19 of july de 1936
    The Carlist uprising spreads throughout Navarra

    Castilla Radio, from Burgos, launched at six o'clock its first speech in favor of the uprising. After taking command of African Army, Franco approved in his first decree, the increasing of a... daily peseta for the Legion's wage. The commander Antonio Castejón, commanding 500 men of the 5th Regiment Flag, reaches Seville. The Carlist uprising spreads throughout Navarra. General Mola print a war proclamation in Diario de Navarra's workshops. In Pamplona, the falangists assault and occupy the premises of the Republican Left, while a first column of its members is organized towards Madrid. From Morocco, four transport airplanes travel toward the peninsula early with legionary forces. Midafternoon, starts the burning of many churches and convents.

    17 of july de 1936
    The national uprising began in Melilla

    On July 17, 1936, the garrison located in Melilla was the first one to rebel against the Republic, a day ahead the General Mola orders, who established the date of the military uprising on 18 Ju... y at 17.00 pm. A delation about the intentions of the conspirators advanced one day the uprising. Officers rebels with the help of falangists, regulars and legionaries troops quickly conquered key buildings in the african city.

    13 of july de 1936
    The murder of the politician José Calvo Sotelo precipitated the military sublevation

    A group of Assault Guards killed a leader of the spanish right party, José Calvo Sotelo (1893-1936), after detaining him illegally in his home in Madrid. This action precipitated the mili... ary sublevation four days later. Calvo Sotelo was finance minister during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. Once established the Republic (1931), he went into exile in Portugal and later in France. In 1934, Calvo Sotelo created the rightist coalition, 'Bloque Nacional' which did not integrate neither CEDA nor Spanish Falange. 'Bloque Nacional' advocated a strong monarchy non parliamentary, a corporate state, and an army with police functions. During the first half of 1936, he claimed to Republican government in several debates in the Spanish Congress the urgent restoration of public order, otherwise claiming that this task was taken over by the Army.

Civil War in Catalonia
  • 23 of september de 1938
    The International brigades are removed from the Spanish Civil War

    Between 23 and September 25, 1938 were separated from the Ebro warfront about 3,000 international volunteers of the 35th and 45th international divisions. Their places were replaced by ancient s... ck, wounded, refugees, defectors and former prisoners. Two days earlier, on September 21, the head of government of the Spanish Republic, Juan Negrin, announced the withdrawal of all foreign volunteers from their units in a gesture to improve the image of the Republic among western powers and to provoke the withdrawal of foreign volunteers in Franco side, much more numerous and well-equipped. On October 28, some 300,000 locals witnessed the last parade of the International Brigades in Barcelona. They marched absolutely disarmed by Diagonal Avenue, Paseo de Gracia and Plaza Catalunya.

    16 of november de 1938
    The battle of the Ebro ends with the withdrawal of the last republican soldiers

    At 04.45 hours on November 16, 1938 , Lt. Col. Manuel Tagüeña , once all his soldiers had withdrawn to the left bank of the Ebro, ordered the bombing of Flix's iron bridge. It wa... the end of the battle of Ebro, the most crucial battle in the Spanish Civil War,

    Some days before, on November 7th, Lister's V Army Corps troops had retired to the left margin of the Ebro, while the Tagüeña's XV Army Corps resisted few more days in the Flix, Asco and Riba-roja d'Ebre area. He proceeded to withdraw its troops in an orderly manner, protected by a fortified line lifted weeks before .

    On November 14th, la Fatarella village fell and a day later, under an intense fog, some republicans tanks and trucks was evacuated by Flix's iron bridge and a boat passage.

    In the night of that day, began the withdrawal of the two Tagüeña's elite divisions, the 3rd and the 35th Republican Division. At eleven pm, the XIII International Brigade of the 35th Division, the unit who had led the offensive on july 25th, was removed.

    At 04.45 am, after last man crossed the Ebro river, iron bridge was blown. The batlle of the Ebro was immensely tragic, with some 130,000 casualties, of which some 30,000 soldiers killed. The rest were wounded and captured.